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時間:2022-08-17 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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元宇宙「芯事」******摘要

当「核心」元件开始脱离手机,VR/AR 硬件才算真的有希望了。

「VR/AR 到底什么时候能起来?」在元宇宙受到热捧的当下,这个当年老生常谈的问题再次成为人们关注的热点。

5 年之前,正值上一波 VR 热潮兴起的时候,有人问 Epic Games 创始人 Tim Sweeney 同样的问题。那时 Epic Gmaes 主打产品还是其游戏引擎——虚幻引擎 Unreal Engine,当时团队还没有做出年入 10 亿美元的热门游戏堡垒之夜 Fortinite,Tim 虽然贵为游戏大佬,还没有叫板苹果要求降低「苹果税」的资本。

不过,由于在 VR 内容制作上,虚幻引擎是唯二的专业工具(另一个是 Unity),所以 Tim Sweeney 的判断还是非常有分量的。

对于开头的问题,Tim Sweeney 讲了一个故事:当苹果生产出第一代 iPhone 之后,传统手机厂商(可能是摩托罗拉)的工程师拆开了 iPhone 的后盖后大吃一惊——没见过这么排线和组装的,「怎么会有人这么造手机?」也难怪后来黑莓的老大给大家宽心:「我们不会有事儿。」

其实 Tim Sweeney 的意思是,要想生产出一件真正创新的产品,必须有配套的核心供应链,而调教供应链为自己专门生产核心元件是苹果的绝技之一,iPhone 后来的成功就是例证。

同理,VR/AR 要想真正成为革命性产品,必然有对应供应链为其专门生产核心元件,「元宇宙」才有可能更快到来。

作为最核心的元件,芯片的发展无疑对 VR/AR 产品的崛起有着决定性作用。「受惠」于手机产业的成熟,VR/AR 芯片现在已经出现了脱离手机,走向独立和定制化的趋势。

剪掉「辫子」之后

2014 年 Facebook 用 20 亿美元收购 Oculus VR 之前,后者刚把第二代开发者套件机型 Oculus Rift DK2 搞出来。iFixit 网站将机器拆解开来,赫然发现机器用的屏幕是一块三星 Galaxy Note 3 的屏幕——除了要盛赞 Oculus 当年确实有 DIY 精神外,也从侧面说明,早在 PC VR 时代,手机供应链对于 VR 硬件的重要性。

Oculus Rift DK2直接用了三星Galaxy Note 3的屏幕|iFixit

由于 PC VR 时代的算力来自 PC,所以当时的 VR 头显的首要任务是搞定显示,也就是 OLED 屏幕。由于材质和显示原理不同,OLED 屏幕相比传统 LCD 屏幕具有延迟低,无拖影的优势,尤其是三星公司的 AMOLED 屏幕更是 VR 产品的首选。

不过,鉴于当时手机市场竞争激烈,小米想拿到三星的屏幕甚至要跟韩国人喝「忠诚酒」,出货量以千计数的 Oculus 公司直接把三星手机屏幕塞进 VR 头显里,也是没办法的事。

经过了谷歌 Cardboard 纸盒眼镜和三星 Gear VR 为代表的「手机 VR」时代的「弯路」后,剪掉 PC VR 头显的「辫子」,具备计算、显示和定位、续航功能于一身的「一体机」才是未来,已经是业内共识。

2018 年 Oculus 和小米联手推出了 VR 一体机产品 Oculus Go(国内叫小米 VR 一体机),这款机器仅支持 3 自由度,也就是说更多支持「观影」体验,而非像 PC VR 时代的定位和「行走」体验。

这款机器使用的是高通两年前的旗舰芯片骁龙 821,Oculus 和小米没有使用当年最新的骁龙 845 估计有三个原因,一是 Go 是两年前开始研发的,821 是当时的旗舰芯片;二是 Go 的定位三自由度的观影机,821 芯片完全满足需求;三,从成本角度思考,Oculus Go 定价 1499 元人民币,显然用新旧款芯片更方便控制预算。

高通在2018年推出的XR1芯片及平台|高通

值得一提的是,同样是在 2018 年,在骁龙 845 之外,高通公司还发布了 XR 1(Extended Reality)芯片及平台,这家移动芯片领域的巨头已经看到了 VR/AR 的未来,并开始有所行动。不过,虽然 XR 1 芯片支持从 3 自由度到 6 自由度的 VR 设备,但主要还是针对类似于 Oculus Go 这样的 3 自由度观影机。

因为从芯片能力来看,高通 XR 1 与骁龙 600(也有说是 760)接近。高通官方说法是,XR1 可以提供「高品质」(High Quality)VR 体验,而同期的旗舰骁龙 845 却可以提供 6 自由度体验需要的空间定位以及手柄识别等高端功能(Premium Quality)。

大卖的Oculus Quest 2一体机采用的是高通XR2芯片|高通

这大概是为什么 Oculus 在 2019 年推出支持 6 自由度的一体机 Oculus Quest 时,芯片使用的是高通的骁龙 835,而不是 XR1。

不过,2020 年,随着搭载 XR2 芯片的 Oculus Quest 2 的全球大卖,显示出高通开始真正向 VR 方面发力。这款据说修改自骁龙 865 芯片的 XR 2 芯片,不仅支持 8K 360 度视频,且支持 7 路并发摄像头,实现精确的运动和手势追踪。同时,5G 和 AI 的加入,则在网速和效率上有所提升。

Quest 2 的优质表现,证明了高通 XR2 芯片弃低端走高端路线的成功。

更注重场景的 AR

相对于路线相对清晰、发展早一步的 VR 来说,当高通开始「修剪」手机端的骁龙,创造 XR 芯片时,AR 硬件公司却因为使用场景不同,在芯片选择上各显神通。

在高端市场,两个先行者 Magic Leap 和 微软高举高打,一开始就瞄着「终局」去。不过,由于两家公司对于 AR(或者 MR)的定义甚高,加上 AR 本身在渲染、空间定位和虚实结合上要比 VR 要求更高,以至于在当时很难找到合适的芯片,至少高通的骁龙或者 XR 无法满足 AR 眼镜的要求。

因此,Magic Leap One 采用的是分体设计,其计算单元 Light Pack 上采用的是英伟达 Tegra X2 多核处理器,事后证明这可能并不是一个特别理想的设计。使用过 Magic Leap One

当年Magic Leap One在计算单元中使用了英伟达的芯片,发热「感人」|Magic Leap

头显的人应该知道,使用过一段时间后,Light Pack 的发热和功耗都十分感人。但是分体设计这一形式,则为其后的 AR 眼镜开了先河。

微软 HoloLens 走的是坚定的一体机形式,据说第一代 HoloLens 头显采用的是老伙伴英特尔的芯片,根据 Cherry Trail Atom 架构修改而成,后者被用于平板电脑等智能设备中。在英特尔的 CPU 和 GPU 之外,其中特别的是微软团队自研的全息处理器 HPU(holographic processing unit),这款定制的 ASIC 芯片主要用于处理 3D 图像和手势等数据。

微软第二代 HoloLens 则使用了高通骁龙 850 作为主处理器,同时搭配了升级版的 HPU 2.0 来实现更加全面的手部动作追踪和更好的视觉表现。

微软HoloLens2中使用了高通骁龙 850芯片|微软

不过,从 Magic Leap One 到 HoloLens 两代产品,由于成本高昂,主打 B 端市场,与 C 端市场无缘。

另一方面,在一些特定的工业和商业领域,AR 眼镜可能因为更加垂直的使用场景,而采用更精专的芯片来实现特定功能,并保持产品的轻便和续航能力。

亮亮视野硬件研发负责人梁祥龙告诉极客公园,公司此前产品的重要场景之一是在眼镜端实现人脸快速识别,所以对 AI 图像处理要求更高,团队使用的是英特尔 Movidius VPU 平台的 Myriad 系列处理器,其特长是深度神经网络和计算机视觉应用。相对于同级别骁龙等平台,Myriad 平台无论是 AI 性能还是功耗上都更理想,可以在分体设计下,保持眼镜重量在 30-40 克,能够长时间佩戴。

当然,使用相对小众的技术平台也有相应代价,相比于高通平台,Myriad 很多底层程序要自己写,费时费力,对创业公司是个很大挑战。好处是,如果能克服这个困难,反而会形成一段时期内的产品护城河。

VR、AR终于「开始独立」?

XR2 的成功,让高通看到了「元宇宙」的潜力。业内人士透露,其实直到 XR2 之后,高通才有专门团队设计真正开始设计专门针对 VR 和 AR 设备的芯片,而不是用现成的骁龙芯片进行「魔改」。

梁祥龙认为,为了满足未来 VR/AR 设备的要求,其核心芯片发展趋势是高制程、低功耗、高集成:由于 VR/AR 眼镜必然越来越轻薄,在电池技术发展没有突破的情况下,芯片功耗需要降下来;像 VR/AR 都要用到的空间定位、手势识别等通用功能将固化到芯片,进一步降低功耗,减小开发难度。

事实上,高通在明年推出的 XR 系列芯片产品,极有可能将具备上述特点。梁祥龙透露亮亮视野目前正在尝试将技术平台移至高通,并规划明年推出在影音效果上更进一步的新品。

另一方面,像苹果、Facebook、Magic Leap 等行业巨头有可能继续自研和定制的方向。据外媒报道,苹果在 2020 年已经完成 VR/AR 芯片的设计,并委托台积电进行 5nm 先进制程生产芯片。该 SoC 由三颗芯片构成,功能是无线数据传输功能优化、压缩及解压缩影片,提高电池效率。

从今年年初开始刮起的「元宇宙」风口至今未灭,虽然现在仍难预测「头号玩家」的时代什么时候能真正到来,但是从高通到苹果,都已经在芯片这个核心领域倾注心力,至少我们可以确定,接下来 VR/AR 产品将迎来一个加速发展的时期。


图片来源:Oculus、微软、iFixit 等

本文由极客公园 GeekPark 原创发布,转载请添加极客君(ID: geekparker)

元宇宙芯片AR/VR/MR
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西安鄠邑发布2名密接者活动轨迹 涉多家门店******

记者从西安市鄠邑区委网信办获悉,2021年10月18日,接西安市疫情防控指挥部通报,2名确诊病例涉鄠邑区B类密接卢某某、曹某某,两人近期行程涉西安市鄠邑区内多家门店及一台出租车。目前,鄠邑区疫情防控指挥部已按照相关防控要求,对卢某某、曹某某落实了集中隔离管控措施。

经流行病学调查:

(一)卢某某于10月16日10:00左右曾乘坐西鄠快客(西安至鄠邑方向),于11:00左右达到鄠邑汽车东站;17:30—19:30(大约)时段内,一行四人在东城南路保峪坊小区南侧“老巷子”饭店用餐;20:20—22:10(大约)时段内,一行三人自三球仪步行至大十字,其间进入大十字西南侧意尔康、德尔惠等多家运动品牌店;22:30—22:50(大约)时段内,曾在鄠邑区中医院对面“京小盒超市”购物。

(二)曹某某于10月16日14:20左右,自三爻地铁D口附近搭乘鄠邑区出租车拼车,约15:00时在鄠邑区五竹街道周北十字下车。

请上述时间段和卢某某、曹某某同空间可能接触人员,第一时间主动向所在村堡(社区)进行报备,并配合落实好相关疫情防控措施。一旦出现发热、干咳、乏力、咽痛、嗅(味)觉减退、腹泻等症状,请立即到就近的发热门诊就诊,主动如实告知个人活动史等,就诊过程中应全程佩戴口罩,就医途中应避免乘坐公共交通工具。对瞒报、谎报造成疫情扩散等严重后果的,将依法追究责任。如有疑问请拨西安市鄠邑区疫情防控热线029-84822345。(总台记者温超)

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来源:央视新闻客户端

编辑:王莉文

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Elite couple shine at China's National Games for Persons with Disabilities******

By Sportswriters Yao Youming, Wang Ze and Zhao Yingbo

XI'AN, Oct. 23 (Xinhua) -- Zhou Feifei and his wife Dong Feixia cemented their places among the all-time great Paralympic athletes when Zhou created a new world record (39.99 meters) in his F55 discus competition on Saturday for the couple's third gold at the ongoing 11th China's National Games for Persons with Disabilities.

Zhou pocketed the F55 men's javelin gold medal on Friday, and Dong won the women's F55 discus title on the same day.

"We were informed of the final schedule on Thursday, after which we didn't talk about the competitions too much," Zhou told Xinhua.

"We prepared for the season for two years and we knew we were both in good shape," Zhou added.

On Thursday, Dong saw Zhou compete in her neighboring court, but when Dong started her campaign at the Games, Zhou was talking and sharing his experiences with one of his competitors.

"We are rivals, but he is my old friend. We haven't met each for a long time, that's why I didn't see Feixia's game. What's more, I have confidence in Feixia," Zhou said.

Dong, a Paralympic gold medalist, took up her sport in 2004.

She trained almost every day in these years and was crowned in every major events. The 32-year-old regards "surpassing myself" as her sporting philosophy. Her idol is Chinese basketball legend Yao Ming.

When she met Zhou in the year 2013, she decided to encourage the young man who lost the ability to walk in an accident.

After accepting several months' training, Zhou won his first national title in 2013 and fell in love with Dong.

When Dong suffered some setbacks in her career around the year 2013, Zhou comforted his wife. "My husband is my strongest support," said Dong.

After finishing her competition on Thursday, Dong whispered to Zhou that he should create a new F55 javelin world record.

"I promised her to create more new records in future," Zhou said.

Before the victory ceremony of women's F55 discus, Dong burst into tears.

"I had two major events in the year 2021: the Tokyo Paralympics and the National Games on my home soil. I am very happy because my results are satisfying. I wanted to thank my coach, family and everyone who supported me," Dong said.

"I hope that the F55 discus will become an official event in the Paris Paralympic Games, and then I will be able to participate in it," Zhou said.

Besides decorating the trophy room of their home with countless medals, the couple have a more important mission. They want to inspire their fans and followers through their good performances on the court.

"I hope that young people can realize their self-worth through sports, so that they can live with more confidence," Zhou told Xinhua. Enditem

Prince Andrew settles sex assault lawsuit with Virginia Giuffre******

AFP

In this file photo taken on May 21, 2019, Britain's Queen Elizabeth II (left) and Prince Andrew, Duke of York, arrive for a garden party in the grounds of Buckingham Palace in central London.

Prince Andrew and his longtime accuser Virginia Giuffre have settled a sexual assault lawsuit for an undisclosed sum, a US court filing showed on Tuesday, sparing the disgraced British royal the public humiliation of a trial.

In a letter sent to a New York judge on behalf of both parties, Giuffre's lawyer David Boies wrote that they "have reached an out-of-court settlement," without revealing the financial terms.

As part of the agreement, the British royal will make a "substantial donation" to a charity established by Giuffre that supports sex-trafficking victims, Boies said.

Giuffre has said she had sex with Andrew when she was 17 and a minor under US law after meeting him through the late US financier Jeffrey Epstein, who committed suicide in prison while awaiting trial for sex crimes.

The prince has not been criminally charged and has denied the allegations.

The settlement means the civil case will not go to a jury trial. It also means Andrew, 61, will no longer be questioned under oath by Giuffre's lawyers, who had been due to travel to London next month.

Boies said in the document filed in a Manhattan court that the respective parties would file a stipulation dismissing the case within 30 days upon "receipt of the settlement."

The letter makes no mention of Giuffre's accusations. Neither does it admit any guilt on behalf of Andrew or refer to the repeated denials he has made.

It said that Andrew "regrets his association with Epstein, and commends the bravery of Ms Giuffre and other survivors in standing up for themselves and others."

"Prince Andrew has never intended to malign Ms Giuffre's character, and he accepts that she has suffered both as an established victim of abuse and as a result of unfair public attacks.

"He pledges to demonstrate his regret for his association with Epstein by supporting the fight against the evils of sex trafficking, and by supporting its victims," the letter added.

The controversy has embarrassed the British monarchy and overshadowed Queen Elizabeth II's Platinum Jubilee year in which she marks 70 years on the throne.

Last month, Andrew was stripped of his honorary military titles and charitable roles after US judge Lewis Kaplan denied his plea to dismiss Giuffre's case.

Former prosecutor-turned-law professor Bennett Gershman said the settlement was "very good news" for Andrew because it gets him out of testifying while not having to acknowledge any improper conduct toward Giuffre.

"His relief must be palpable," Gershman told AFP.

Lawyer Lisa Bloom, who represents eight of Epstein's victims, hailed the settlement as a "victory" for Giuffre, however.

"She has accomplished what no one else could: getting Prince Andrew to stop his nonsense and side with sexual abuse victims," Bloom tweeted.

Private island

Giuffre, now 38, alleged that Andrew sexually assaulted her at the London home of socialite and Epstein friend Ghislaine Maxwell after a night out dancing in March 2001.

She sued the prince last year for unspecified damages under New York's Child Victims' Act, alleging that she was trafficked to him by Epstein and Maxwell.

In December, Maxwell was convicted of recruiting and grooming young girls to be sexually abused by Epstein, exposing a murky world of sex trafficking among the rich and powerful.

As well as the London allegations, Giuffre also said Andrew assaulted her at Epstein's home in New York, and on Epstein's private island in the US Virgin Islands.

Epstein, 66, was a high-profile financier who befriended countless celebrities.

His death in a Manhattan jail in August 2019 was ruled a suicide by New York's chief medical examiner but sparked conspiracy theories that he had been killed to protect wealthy associates.

Andrew, Queen Elizabeth II's second son, withdrew from public life as a royal in 2019 after a widely ridiculed BBC interview where he defended his relationship with Epstein and sought to vindicate himself of Giuffre's accusation.

The conciliatory language in Tuesday's statement was in stark contrast to October, when Andrew's lawyers accused Giuffre of seeking to profit from a "baseless lawsuit."

A spokesperson for Andrew said he would not be commenting beyond the court documents.

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2.通州成立文旅商体共创平台 赋能产业融合发展

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4.队记:骑士新赛季首战预计客场挑战猛龙 于10月20日开打

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